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All three American aircraft carriers were out to sea, however, and evaded destruction. The sinking of the British battleship Prince of Wales and battlecruiser Repulse , demonstrated the vulnerability of a battleship to air attack while at sea without sufficient air cover, settling the argument begun by Mitchell in Both warships were under way and en route to attack the Japanese amphibious force that had invaded Malaya when they were caught by Japanese land-based bombers and torpedo bombers on December 10, At many of the early crucial battles of the Pacific, for instance Coral Sea and Midway , battleships were either absent or overshadowed as carriers launched wave after wave of planes into the attack at a range of hundreds of miles.
In later battles in the Pacific, battleships primarily performed shore bombardment in support of amphibious landings and provided anti-aircraft defense as escort for the carriers.
The last battleship confrontation in history was the Battle of Surigao Strait , on October 25, , in which a numerically and technically superior American battleship group destroyed a lesser Japanese battleship group by gunfire after it had already been devastated by destroyer torpedo attacks.
All but one of the American battleships in this confrontation had previously been sunk during the attack on Pearl Harbor and subsequently raised and repaired.
When Mississippi fired the last salvo of this battle, the last salvo fired by a battleship against another heavy ship, she was "firing a funeral salute to a finished era of naval warfare".
After World War II, several navies retained their existing battleships, but they were no longer strategically dominant military assets.
By the end of the s, smaller vessel classes such as destroyers, which formerly offered no noteworthy opposition to battleships, now were capable of eliminating battleships from outside the range of the ship's heavy guns.
The remaining battleships met a variety of ends. Both battleships proved resistant to nuclear air burst but vulnerable to underwater nuclear explosions.
The two Andrea Doria -class ships were scrapped in The United Kingdom's four surviving King George V -class ships were scrapped in ,  and Vanguard followed in Hessen was taken over by the Soviet Union and renamed Tsel.
She was scrapped in Schleswig-Holstein was renamed Borodino , and was used as a target ship until Schlesien , too, was used as a target ship.
She was broken up between and The Iowa -class battleships gained a new lease of life in the U. Navy as fire support ships.
Radar and computer-controlled gunfire could be aimed with pinpoint accuracy to target. As part of Navy Secretary John F. Lehman 's effort to build a ship Navy in the s, and in response to the commissioning of Kirov by the Soviet Union, the United States recommissioned all four Iowa -class battleships.
On several occasions, battleships were support ships in carrier battle groups , or led their own battleship battle group.
After Indiana was stricken in , the four Iowa-class ships were the only battleships in commission or reserve anywhere in the world.
There was an extended debate when the four Iowa ships were finally decommissioned in the early s. These last two battleships were finally stricken from the U.
Naval Vessel Register in Navy listed no battleships in the reserve in When the last Iowa -class ship was finally stricken from the Naval Vessel Registry , no battleships remained in service or in reserve with any navy worldwide.
A number are preserved as museum ships , either afloat or in drydock. Wisconsin now serves as a museum ship in Norfolk, Virginia.
North Carolina is on display in Wilmington, North Carolina. Alabama is on display in Mobile, Alabama. The wreck of the Arizona , sunk during the Pearl Harbor attack in , is designated a historical landmark and national gravesite.
The only other 20th-century battleship on display is the Japanese pre-dreadnought Mikasa. A replica of the ironclad battleship Dingyuan was built by the Weihai Port Bureau in and is on display in Weihai , China.
Battleships were the embodiment of sea power. For Alfred Thayer Mahan and his followers, a strong navy was vital to the success of a nation, and control of the seas was vital for the projection of force on land and overseas.
Mahan's theory, proposed in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, — of , dictated the role of the battleship was to sweep the enemy from the seas.
This concept of "potential threat" can be further generalized to the mere existence as opposed to presence of a powerful fleet tying the opposing fleet down.
This concept came to be known as a " fleet in being "—an idle yet mighty fleet forcing others to spend time, resource and effort to actively guard against it.
Mahan was highly influential in naval and political circles throughout the age of the battleship,   calling for a large fleet of the most powerful battleships possible.
Mahan's work developed in the late s, and by the end of the s it had acquired much international influence on naval strategy;  in the end, it was adopted by many major navies notably the British, American, German, and Japanese.
The strength of Mahanian opinion was important in the development of the battleships arms races, and equally important in the agreement of the Powers to limit battleship numbers in the interwar era.
The "fleet in being" suggested battleships could simply by their existence tie down superior enemy resources. This in turn was believed to be able to tip the balance of a conflict even without a battle.
This suggested even for inferior naval powers a battleship fleet could have important strategic effect. While the role of battleships in both World Wars reflected Mahanian doctrine, the details of battleship deployment were more complex.
Unlike ships of the line , the battleships of the late 19th and early 20th centuries had significant vulnerability to torpedoes and mines—because efficient mines and torpedoes did not exist before that  —which could be used by relatively small and inexpensive craft.
By the s, the Royal Navy had developed the first destroyers , which were initially designed to intercept and drive off any attacking torpedo boats.
During the First World War and subsequently, battleships were rarely deployed without a protective screen of destroyers.
Battleship doctrine emphasised the concentration of the battlegroup. In order for this concentrated force to be able to bring its power to bear on a reluctant opponent or to avoid an encounter with a stronger enemy fleet , battlefleets needed some means of locating enemy ships beyond horizon range.
This was provided by scouting forces; at various stages battlecruisers , cruisers , destroyers, airships , submarines and aircraft were all used.
With the development of radio, direction finding and traffic analysis would come into play, as well, so even shore stations, broadly speaking, joined the battlegroup.
The North Sea campaign of the First World War illustrates how, despite this support, the threat of mine and torpedo attack, and the failure to integrate or appreciate the capabilities of new techniques,  seriously inhibited the operations of the Royal Navy Grand Fleet, the greatest battleship fleet of its time.
The presence of battleships had a great psychological and diplomatic impact. Similar to possessing nuclear weapons today, the ownership of battleships served to enhance a nation's force projection.
Even during the Cold War , the psychological impact of a battleship was significant. In , USS Missouri was dispatched to deliver the remains of the ambassador from Turkey, and her presence in Turkish and Greek waters staved off a possible Soviet thrust into the Balkan region.
Gunfire from New Jersey later killed militia leaders. Battleships were the largest and most complex, and hence the most expensive warships of their time; as a result, the value of investment in battleships has always been contested.
As the French politician Etienne Lamy wrote in , "The construction of battleships is so costly, their effectiveness so uncertain and of such short duration, that the enterprise of creating an armored fleet seems to leave fruitless the perseverance of a people".
It proposed what would nowadays be termed a sea denial strategy, based on fast, long-ranged cruisers for commerce raiding and torpedo boat flotillas to attack enemy ships attempting to blockade French ports.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Battleship disambiguation. Large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns.
Main article: Ship of the line. Main article: Ironclad warship. Main article: Pre-dreadnought battleship. See also: Dreadnought. See also: World War I naval arms race.
See also: Naval warfare of World War I. See also: List of battleships of the Second World War. Battleships portal.
Steaming in the Dark? II, pp. When 12 inch guns are firing, 10 inch guns go unnoticed Everything in this war has tended to emphasise the vast importance to a ship Known as the Battle of August 10 in Russia.
Sacred vessels: the cult of the battleship and the rise of the U. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. OED Online.
Oxford University Press. April 4, A Treatise on Naval Gunnery , p. For the U. Naval Institute Pres, , p. Four Modern Naval Campaigns , pp.
The Complete Encyclopedia of Battleships , pp. Birth of the battleship: British capital ship design — Retrieved October 23, Library Journal.
British Battlecruisers — Oxford: Osprey Publishing. The encyclopedia of warfare: from earliest time to the present day, Part Retrieved April 17, Retrieved January 15, Castles of Steel , London, Submarines at War — Periscope Publishing Ltd.
Battleships , pp. Jane's War at Sea , pp. Conway Maritime, London. Although the enemy ship was hit and sunk, the captain of a British submarine claimed to have fired a torpedo simultaneously and sunk the ship.
It was further stated that the British submarine E14 had attacked and immobilised the ship four days earlier. However, on August 17, , another Turkish ship was sunk by a torpedo of whose origin there can be no doubt.
On this occasion Flight Commander C. Edmonds, flying a Short , torpedoed a Turkish steamer a few miles north of the Dardanelles.
His formation colleague, Flight Lieutenant G. Dacre, was forced to land on the water owing to engine trouble but, seeing an enemy tug close by, taxied up to it and released his torpedo.
The tug blew up and sank. Thereafter, Dacre was able to take off and return to the Ben-my-Chree. Air Force Magazine, June Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved January 31, Paul Zenith Press.
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New York: Scribner's Sons. Schlachtschiffe der Welt , p. Jane's Battleships of the 20th Century. New York: HarperCollins. London: Phoebus, , Volume 2, p.
No mention of her sister, Jean Bart. Jordan, John ed. Project The Stalingrad Class. Warship London: Conway. April 26, Archived from the original on April 26, Navy, December 14, She was the only one of the four battleships in her class to survive The good old fashioned game of battleships , well not quite.
Between and , a series of battleships were constructed. The Committee's first task was to consider a new battleship. Expect they might have thought he was sent from this battleship of his down to the house.
Kurs angielskiego eTutor. Aplikacje mobilne i wtyczki Diki. In that case, what would a space battleship look like?
They looked like a line of battleships in a storm. He is no drama, and just goes and gets it done. The score is big and awesome and scary and driving.
At times, it's very simple and acoustic and touching and emotional. He's the best I've ever worked with.
The film was originally planned to be released in , but was rescheduled to May 18, , in the United States. It settled in second place for its opening day and opening weekend behind Marvel's The Avengers.
Metacritic has given the film an average score of 41 out of based on 39 reviews meaning "mixed or average reviews". The site's consensus reads: "It may offer energetic escapism for less demanding filmgoers, but Battleship is too loud, poorly written, and formulaic to justify its expense -- and a lot less fun than its source material.
Many reviews criticised the "based on a board game" concept driving the film, although some, such as Jason Di Rosso from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation 's Radio National , claimed the ridiculousness of the setup is "either sheer joy or pure hell — depending on how seriously you take it", while de Semlyen "had to admire [the film's creators] jumping through hoops to engineer a sequence that replicates the board game.
Other critics were less harsh for Battleship : Writing for Time , Steven James Snyder was somewhat positive because he had low expectations of the film.
For every stretch of generic sci-fi-via-CGI moviemaking, there's a welcome bit of wit. I don't want to spoil it for you. Let's say the Greatest Generation still has the right stuff and leave it at that.
Battleship was released on 4K Blu-Ray on January 17, A video game based on the film, titled Battleship , was released on May 15, to coincide with the film's international release.
Hasbro released several new editions of the classic board game, including an update to the regular fleet-vs.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Theatrical release poster. Colby Parker Jr. Billy Rich Paul Rubell. Hasbro Studios Bluegrass Films Film Release date.
Running time. Steve Jablonsky. Film Music Reporter. May 31, Retrieved June 6, Retrieved August 6, Retrieved December 27, March 27, Retrieved July 10, Aloha Update.
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Phil Star. April 14, Archived from the original on September 4, Retrieved April 19, View London. Retrieved May 12, Retrieved April 15,The sheer number of guns fired broadside meant a ship of the line could Heinz Hot Ketchup any wooden enemy, holing her hullknocking Wirwetten mastswrecking her riggingand killing her crew. Plot Summary. User Reviews.